The Use Of The Iterative Model Of See It, Try It, Reflect On It (STIR) To Accelerate Preservice Teachers Implementation Of High Leverage Teaching Practices
Research has documented the need for prospective teachers (PTs) to have content and pedagogical knowledge (Shulman, 1986). Researchers continue tostudy various aspects related
to pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and differentiate between types of knowledge PTs need to teach mathematics (Ball, Thames, & Phelps, 2008; Hill & Ball, 2004). As researchers continue to focus on aspects of PCK for teachers, teachereducation programs continue to increase content (e.g.; teaching strategies, differentiatedinstruction,mathematicscontent, assessment strategies, English language learners) while the number ofcourses in which PTs enroll remains the same. Teaching practices associated withPCK are a focus in methods courses and PTs are expected to enter student teaching implementing the variouspractices that were read about, discussed, observed, or modeled by the instructor. Researchsuggests that such experiences do not align with how people learn, rather people learn through experiences that(1) build on their own knowledge, (2) provide guidance fromanother expert and (3) allow thinking to be visible so ideas can be discussed and clarified (Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2000).
Currently, most PTs either observe secondarymathematics teachers in a field placement then write a reflection citing evidence fromthe lesson or observe methods course instructors model teaching practices witha subsequent discussion aboutthe practices used. While each approach can help students gain a better understanding of teaching practices, their effectiveness is limited. First, there is no guarantee the PTswill observe the teaching practices discussed in their methods course during field placement. Second, PTs often write their reflection hours, or days, after the observation, diminishing the quality and accuracy of the observations. Third, perceptions of teaching practices often differ between PTs and instructors. While eachperson has an image of what the teaching practices look like when implemented in the classroom, these images are often not the same for novice teachers (Tripp, Graham, Dye, & Wright, 2007). Fourth, there is no guarantee PTs will notice whatthe instructor wanted themto notice (Sherin & van Es, 2005; Star & Strickland, 2007). Finally, there is a question whether the teaching practices discussed, modeled or read about willtransfer to the PTs own teaching. Addressing these limitations has led us to consider how the use of technology can create authentic learning experiences for our PTs to develop competencyinimplementation of teaching practices.
The first phase of the cycle is toseeit– meaning PTs observe teaching practices implemented in classrooms. Using a video library of model teachers, PTs watch videoinstances (short clips) ofmultiple teachers and then rate the instances based on supplied definitions and rubrics for the different teachingpractices. The second phase is totry it – meaning PTs implement the teaching practices in their own teaching of lessons during the course that are videotaped. The third phase is toreflect on it – meaning PTs code their own video and rate themselves using the same rating systems they used for the model teachers. PTs then compare themselves to the rubric as well as model teachers and continually improve on teaching practices. This three-phase cycle is then repeated so PTs are continually learningand understanding how to implement teaching practices.
This processallows PTs to see multiple examples of teachingpractices implemented in a real teaching situation. Second, it allows the PTsto create correct images of these teaching practices and view other teachers’ implementation. Third, it allows PTs to implement these practices in their own teaching. Fourth, it requires PTs to reflect on how their implementation compares with model teachers, whichhelps in thedevelopment of their own teaching practices.